English Irregular Verbs and Past Participles

In order to form the Present Perfect and Past Perfect tenses you need to know the past participles. Because many English verbs are irregular, it can be difficult to remember them. Here is a handy reference list of the most common irregular past participles.

How to remember irregular verbs and irregular past participles

Most irregular verbs are very common in English, which means you will see or hear them often. This makes it a little easier to remember them. But there are also some common patterns:

– the 'en' ending (break – broke – broken; write – wrote – written; hide – hid – hidden etc)
– the 'ing', 'ang', 'ung' pattern (ring – rang – rung; sing – sang – sung etc)

Some common verbs are also formed from others, which means the past participle is the same:
– give / forgive (given / forgiven)
– come / become (come / become)
– stand / understand (stood / understood)

A few verbs don't change at all. For example:
read – read – read (the pronunciation changes from the present /reed/ to the past tense and past participle /red/
cut – cut – cut (no pronunciation change)
put – put – put (no pronunciation change)

Sometimes, more than one ending is possible:
– dreamed / dreamt
– learned / learnt

List of the most common irregular verbs and irregular past participles

Past Participles

Irregular Past Participles Quiz

Level: A2 and above

1. Oh look! That little boy has __ (fall) off his bicycle.
2. Has she __ (ring) yet?
3. Someone has __ (bring) you flowers again!
4. They've __ (buy) a new car - it's one of those new Fords.
5. She's __ (send) her mother some chocolates.
6. Her children have __ (become) very well-behaved recently.
7. He's never __ (forgive) me for that misunderstanding.
8. We've __ (choose) a new carpet for the living room.
9. He's __ (teach) Chemistry for years.
10. He's __ (know) her for a long time.
11. We've __ (lend) them some money to buy a new house.
12. I haven't __ (write) to the school yet, but I will soon.
13. He's never __ (understand) that area of Physics.
14. You haven't __ (feel) well for ages. You should see a doctor.
15. Have you ever __ (ride) a horse?
16. Have you __ (do) your homework yet?
17. I've __ (shake) out the rug, but it's still dirty.
18. I think I've __ (lose) my watch.
19. He's __ (make) a few mistakes in the test.
20. Have you ever __ (run) a marathon?

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